Impressions of Eastern Europe: Prints from the Permanent Collection The artists in this exhibition participated in some of the most significant art movements of the twentieth century. Their genre scenes, folk tale illustrations, portraits and character studies evoke nostalgia for a communal past, solemn awareness of the fragility of life and deep reverence for tradition during a period of rapid urbanization, secularization and seismic political and cultural shifts. Ilya Schor (b. Złoczów, Galicia, Austro-Hungarian Empire, now Zolochiv, Ukraine, 1904–d. New York, 1961), Jewish Wedding, 1950s, wood engraving with hand coloring. Gift of Estelle Reingold, HHAR 6354. © Mira Schor. Reproduced with Permission. Slide Isidor Kaufmann studied art in Budapest in 1875 and the following year moved to Vienna to continue his studies. In the 1880s, while creating genre scenes, or pictures of everyday life, he began to include Jewish characters that likely appealed to a growing bourgeois Jewish clientele seeking a connection to a vanishing past. His portraits and scenes evoke a deeply spiritual people in a way that was also strikingly modern and authentic.

Kaufmann explained his views in a letter in 1917: “And—since it is my conviction that the strength of every artist is rooted in his own people—I became the painter of Judaism. I have always pursued the vision of glorifying and exalting Judaism. I strove to reveal its beauties and its nobility and tried to make the traditions and institutions that speak of such great religious devotion and reverence accessible for Gentiles as well.” His work was popularized in lithographs produced after his death.
Isidor Kaufmann (b. Arad, Hungary, Austrian Empire, now Romania, 1853–d. Vienna, 1921), The Jewish Bride, ca. 1920s, lithograph. Gift of Ita Aber, 02.15.
Slide Jakob Steinhardt grew up in a rural village that included Jews and Poles but was under German rule until after World War I. He studied with the painter Lovis Corinth and learned etching from Hermann Struck in Berlin and went to Paris in 1909. After returning to Berlin, he met the artist Ludwig Meidner with whom he felt a kinship. They shared an interest in creating an art with dramatic content that would inspire intense emotional responses. With other young painters, they created the Expressionist artists’ group Die Pathetiker in 1912. Steinhardt devoted himself to biblical subjects, such as Job, which he also painted in oil. His work was soon exhibited in the gallery of the avant-garde monthly Der Sturm and he became one of the most progressive artists in Berlin at the time. He created etchings and woodcuts, which became his principal means of expression for the rest of his life. Jakob Steinhardt (b. Zerkow, Germany, now Poland, 1887–d. Israel, 1968), Job 2, 1914, etching. Gift of Sylvia and Tom Rogers, 09.02.03. Slide The activities of the avant-garde Expressionist artists’ group Die Pathetiker that Steinhardt and other artists had founded in 1912 were cut short when Steinhardt was drafted during World War I. He served in Lithuania where he found himself drawn to the deep religious faith of the Hasidic community. He was in awe of the intense spiritual atmosphere in the midst of poverty, the customs and the fervent dedication to prayer and study he found among the devout. Steinhardt himself suffered from starvation and illness as a soldier. He arrived home in a state of collapse after the War.

After the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, Steinhardt fled and settled in Jerusalem, which he had first visited in 1925. He continued to represent biblical and other Jewish subjects as well as the landscape of his new homeland for the rest of his life.
Jakob Steinhardt (b. Zerkow, Germany, now Poland, 1887–d. Israel, 1968), Old Couple at the Window, 1933, woodcut. U.136.
Slide In 1921, Friedrich (Bedřich) Feigl published a print portfolio of scenes from the Jewish ghetto of Prague, where his mother’s family had lived for generations and where he had spent his childhood. That same year, an album published for the twelfth World Zionist Congress featured this woodcut evoking the Shema, the daily prayer recited by observant Jews, along with etchings by Hermann Struck, Jakob Steinhardt and eight other artists. Feigl also painted biblical motifs, including Samson and Delilah, Lot and his daughters, Isaac’s blessing and Rebecca at the well—stories that he believed were relevant to contemporary experience. Feigl visited Palestine in 1933 and spent most of his time in Jerusalem. Shortly after returning to Berlin, where the Nazis had come to power that same year, Feigl left for Prague, and in 1939 he escaped to London, where he wrote reviews and essays on art and culture and showed his work at the Ben Uri Gallery. Friedrich (Bedřich) Feigl (b. Prague, Bohemia, now Czech Republic, 1884–d. London, 1965), Hear Israel, 1921, woodcut. U.239. Slide Hermann Struck was born into an Orthodox Jewish family in Berlin and studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Berlin from 1895 to 1900. He joined the Berlin Secession in 1904, a group that separated from the Academy and promoted modern German art. Struck joined the Zionist movement and first visited Palestine in 1903. Serving as an Officer of Jewish Affairs during World War I, he had his first encounters with Jewish life in Eastern Europe, particularly the traditions and practices of Hasidism.

After witnessing the hardships and poverty among the Eastern European Jews, he began to portray them in his art. In 1922, Struck immigrated to Israel, creating a hub of Jewish cultural life at his home in Haifa. He continued his work on Jewish themes, including etchings and lithographs, and remained active in the Orthodox Jewish community. He was also a leader of the Mizrachi Party and participated in several Zionist Congresses.
Hermann Struck (b. Berlin, Germany, 1876–d. Haifa, Palestine, now Israel, 1944), Untitled (Figure Walking), n.d., etching. Ralph and Leuba Baum Collection, B.2.
Slide William Auerbach-Levy immigrated to New York with his family when he was about five years old and settled on the Lower East Side. There he found his portrait subjects among the traditional immigrant Jewish population during the peak of mass migration from Eastern Europe. He attended the National Academy of Design from the age of eleven and in 1911, after graduating from college, traveled in Europe for two years and studied in Paris at the Académie Julian. Back in New York, Auerbach-Levy taught etching at the National Academy of Design until 1935 and was an instructor at the Educational Alliance Art School. He returned to France on a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1928.
Specializing in portraiture and figure studies, Auerbach-Levy made his living as a caricaturist and contributed drawings of celebrities and entertainers to the New York World, the New York Post, Esquire, Collier’s, The New Yorker and Vanity Fair.
William Auerbach-Levy (b. Brest-Litovsk, Belorussia, Russian Empire, now Belarus, 1889–d. Ossining, NY, 1964), The Patriarch’s Prayer, 1914, etching. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Lewis, HHAR 5472.
Slide Rahel Szalit-Marcus grew up in Lodz and studied art in Munich in 1911. She moved to Berlin in 1916 and became a member of the radical Novembergruppe, an association of artists that emerged in 1918 during the revolutionary period following the end of World War I. In the 1920s, she was a successful illustrator of works by Sholem Aleichem, Charles Dickens and Fyodor Dostoyevsky, among others. When Hitler came to power in 1933, Szalit-Marcus fled to France, but was interned at Drancy and deported to Auschwitz where she was murdered. Most of the paintings and watercolors she left behind in her studio were destroyed, though many of her prints survived.

Szalit-Marcus’s grotesquely expressionist renderings depict the desperate conditions, including violence and poverty that afflict the working class characters in Fischke the Lame, a short novel by Mendele Moyker Sforim (1836–1917) that follows the misfortunes of an itinerant beggar, the eponymous Fischke.
Rahel Szalit-Marcus (b. Kovno, Russian Empire, now Kaunas, Lithuania, 1894–d. Auschwitz, 1942), The child is pushed out of the cart barefoot. . . , from Fischke the Lame, by Mendele Moykher-Sforim, 1922, lithograph. Gift of Sigmund R. Balka, 08.07.12.
Slide Max Weber immigrated to the United States with his family at the age of ten and settled in Brooklyn. He attended the Pratt Institute and traveled to Paris in 1905 to study at the Académie Julian and briefly with Henri Matisse. He returned to New York in 1909 and has been credited with helping to introduce Cubism to America. Working in a semi-abstract, modernist style, around 1918 Weber began to incorporate religious themes related to his Orthodox Eastern European Jewish heritage into his compositions.

By the 1920s, Weber returned to a more representational style. Draped Head directly relates to an earlier painting now in the Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C. Like that work, the figure here is pictured in contemplation. It also has a solidity and monumentality found in Picasso’s work of the same period. Its evocation of solemn spirituality reflects the influence on Weber of Byzantine art and the sixteenth-century Spanish artist El Greco.
Max Weber (b. Bialystok, Russian Empire, now Poland, 1881–d. Great Neck, NY, 1961), Draped Head, 1928, lithograph. Gift of Joanna V. Pomeranz, HHAR 6099.
Slide While he was a child in Kovno, Arbit Blatas and his family were deported to Ukraine, but allowed to return in 1921. He studied in a Jewish gymnasium and went on to study drawing at the Kaunas Art School. From 1924 to 1926, Blatas studied at the Academy of Arts in Berlin, and then moved to Paris to continue his art studies.

Blatas fled Nazi-occupied France in 1941 and survived the War, though his mother perished in a concentration camp. He lived in New York and Venice, creating works that recalled events of the Holocaust, including a memorial in the Venice Ghetto. This print depicts the Babi Yar massacre, one of the largest and most brutal mass killings in which 33,000 Jews in Kiev, then in Soviet Ukraine, were murdered at a ravine over two days in September 1941. The print is directly related to an earlier painting of the subject dated 1944.
Arbit Blatas (b. Kovno, Russian Empire, now Kaunas, Lithuania, 1908–d. New York, 1999), Babi Yar, ca. 1969, lithograph. HHAR 3068.
Slide Nothing is known about the maker of this work, which is signed A. Fuchs and dated 1961. It’s possible the print was created based on personal experience or memories of specific events during the Holocaust. The scene itself is sparse and emphasizes the isolation and vulnerability of the individuals depicted. Each person or small group carries few if any belongings and is seen from behind moving toward an unknown yet fateful destination. Each of the adult figures is slightly stooped, bearing the weight of not only physical but emotional burdens. At left is a fragment of barbed wire fencing and an abandoned suitcase, indicating that the group of deportees may have arrived at a concentration camp. A. Fuchs (Place of birth and death and dates unknown), Untitled, 1961, lithograph. Gift of Jacob Reingold, HHAR 06.03. Slide Albert Dov Sigal studied enameling, engraving and painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kolozsvár. In 1933, he moved to Bucharest. By 1939, it was difficult to find work and Sigal experienced persecution. Nevertheless, he began an underground art school. After his marriage in mid-1941, Sigal and his wife opened a jewelry business under a gentile name. During the Holocaust, they escaped deportation, though most of their extended family was murdered.

Sigal reestablished his career in Bucharest after the War and in 1946 exhibited at the National Museum. However, life under Communism was difficult and the family immigrated to Palestine on an illegal immigrant ship that was intercepted by the British in December 1947. Sigal based his prints on drawings he made in a camp in Cyprus during his internment. The British released the family in February 1948 and allowed them to enter Palestine. They eventually resettled in New York in 1959.
Albert Dov Sigal (b. Kolozsvár, Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 1912–d. New York, 1970), Detainees in Cyprus, from Cyprus Camp, 1948, etching. Gift of Rose Sigal Ibsen, HHAR 3377.
Slide Belorussian-born artist Anatoli Lvovich Kaplan studied at the Leningrad Academy of Arts and early in his career worked as a theater designer. In 1939, he became a member of the Artists Union and began to exhibit regularly, first learning lithography around this time and completing a series about Kasrilevke, the fictional village in the work of Sholem Aleichem. In 1957, he was commissioned to create illustrations for The Bewitched Tailor to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the author’s birth. His other portfolios include Song of Songs, Yiddish Folksongs and Tevia the Milkman.

The subject of The Little Goat is the “Had Gadya”—the folk song in Aramaic and Hebrew that is sung at the end of the Passover seder. The Little Goat portfolio features a table of contents, title page, frontispiece, dedication page and a page with the complete song poem in addition to the eight individual verses in both Russian and Yiddish.
Anatoli Kaplan (b. Rogachev, Belorussia, Russian Empire, now Rohachow, Belarus, 1902–d. Leningrad, USSR, now Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1980), Verse 7: Came an Ox and Drank the Water, from The Little Goat, 1958–1961, lithograph. HHAR 1497.
Slide Simon Karczmar attended the Warsaw School of Fine Art and beginning in 1929 continued his studies in Paris where he went on to make a living buying and sorting furs. In 1941, during the German occupation, Karczmar and his family fled to Nice. Despite their efforts to evade deportation, his wife was sent to a concentration camp and Karczmar joined the resistance.

After the War, Karczmar was reunited with his family and they emigrated, first to Israel and then to Canada in 1955. There Karczmar read works by Sholem Aleichem and was inspired to paint scenes that recalled the summers he spent as a child in his grandfather’s small Lithuanian Jewish village of Dziewieniszki. The works from Shtetl—a collection of images depicting scenes from everyday life in the village—were drawn in a naive manner that evokes the innocence of childhood. In 1962, Karczmar and his wife returned to Israel where he joined the artists’ colony at Safed.
Simon Karczmar (b. Warsaw, Poland, Russian Empire, now Poland, 1903–d. Safed, Israel, 1982), Simhas Torah, Dance of the Torah, from Shtetl, ca. 1960, lithograph. Gift of Randolph and Herta Chester, HHAR 1294.
Slide Emanuel Schary immigrated to the United States from what was then Palestine when he was 16. Since his father was an American citizen, when the country entered World War II, he was drafted into the Army and deployed to Europe. After the War, Schary studied at the Carnegie Institute of Technology School of Fine Arts in Pittsburgh and at the Art Students League and the Pratt Graphic Center in New York.

Schary worked as a commercial artist, including designing for Estée Lauder and Givenchy perfumes before devoting himself full time to art at the age of 61. His work is realist and detailed as in this print, which nostalgically depicts an older man wearing a traditional Eastern European cap holding a letter in an interior with a view of a traditional European Jewish village, or shtetl. The title suggests that the man has received “a letter home”—perhaps from a child who has emigrated to America.
Emanuel Schary (b. Haifa, Palestine, now Israel, 1924–d. Rock Hill, NY, 1994), A Letter Home, n.d., lithograph. Gift of Rita and Marvin Grant, HHAR 2943.
Slide In 1920, Ilya Schor was apprenticed to an engraver and learned metalwork and engraving, which he utilized in his sculpture, prints, jewelry and Jewish ritual objects. In 1928, he began his studies in painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw where he met his wife, Resia, two years later. In 1937, Schor was awarded a grant to study in Paris and worked on a mural for the Polish Pavilion at the Paris World’s Fair that year. He also exhibited at the Salon d’Automne in Paris in 1938. During the German occupation, the couple fled France for the United States.

Schor’s work evokes the shtetl culture that was lost during the Holocaust in a style that is at once modern and naïve. It represents with authenticity the world from which he came and acknowledges his artistic heritage—his father was a Hasidic folk artist and sign painter in Galicia.
Ilya Schor (b. Złoczów, Galicia, Austro-Hungarian Empire, now Zolochiv, Ukraine, 1904–d. New York, 1961), Jewish Wedding, 1950s, wood engraving with hand coloring. Gift of Estelle Reingold, HHAR 6354. © Mira Schor. Reproduced with Permission.
Slide Tully Filmus came to the United States with his family at the age of ten and settled in Philadelphia. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and attended seminars at the Barnes Foundation. In 1927, he was awarded a fellowship to study in Paris and returned to the United States during the Depression, settling in New York, where he continued his studies at New York University and the Art Students League.

Filmus’s Jewish subjects, such as Chassidic Dance, honored the memory of traditional Eastern European Jewish life and documented contemporary Jews in the wake of the Holocaust. Filmus taught at the American Artists School in New York and Cooper Union, and exhibited regularly in the 1940s at the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Carnegie Institute and the Corcoran Gallery. His work was also shown at ACA Galleries in New York in 1971.
Tully Filmus (b. Ataki, Bessarabia, Russian Empire, now Otaci, Moldova, 1903–d. Fern Hill, MA, 1998), Chassidic Dance, 1964, lithograph. HHAR 176.
Slide Joseph Margulies came to the United States with his family at a young age. He studied at the Art Students League and the National Academy of Design in New York and at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Margulies worked as a painter, etcher and lithographer. He was a well-known portrait artist and was commissioned to execute portraits of presidents and other distinguished individuals. Representing a surviving remnant of traditional life decimated by the Holocaust, A Chassid uncompromisingly renders the deeply lined face of his impoverished sitter in a manner that suggests authenticity and spiritual richness.

Associated American Artists, a New York-based gallery that promoted American artists and sought to make art affordable to the middle class, published Margulies’s etching. Many of its prints were sold through mail-order catalogues for five dollars each. AAA published more than 2600 print editions between 1934 and 1990, including 40 by Margulies.
Joseph Margulies (b. Vienna, 1896–d. New York, 1984), A Chassid, 1966, etching. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Lewis, HHAR 5912.

The artists in this exhibition participated in some of the most significant art movements of the twentieth century. Their genre scenes, folk tale illustrations, portraits and character studies evoke nostalgia for a communal past, solemn awareness of the fragility of life and deep reverence for tradition during a period of rapid urbanization, secularization and seismic political and cultural shifts.

Isidor Kaufmann (b. Arad, Hungary, Austrian Empire, now Romania, 1853–d. Vienna, 1921), The Jewish Bride, ca. 1920s, lithograph. Gift of Ita Aber, 02.15.

Isidor Kaufmann studied art in Budapest in 1875 and the following year moved to Vienna to continue his studies. In the 1880s, while creating genre scenes, or pictures of everyday life, he began to include Jewish characters that likely appealed to a growing bourgeois Jewish clientele seeking a connection to a vanishing past. His portraits and scenes evoke a deeply spiritual people in a way that was also strikingly modern and authentic.

Kaufmann explained his views in a letter in 1917: “And—since it is my conviction that the strength of every artist is rooted in his own people—I became the painter of Judaism. I have always pursued the vision of glorifying and exalting Judaism. I strove to reveal its beauties and its nobility and tried to make the traditions and institutions that speak of such great religious devotion and reverence accessible for Gentiles as well.” His work was popularized in lithographs produced after his death.

Jakob Steinhardt (b. Zerkow, Germany, now Poland, 1887–d. Israel, 1968), Job 2, 1914, etching. Gift of Sylvia and Tom Rogers, 09.02.03.

Jakob Steinhardt grew up in a rural village that included Jews and Poles but was under German rule until after World War I. He studied with the painter Lovis Corinth and learned etching from Hermann Struck in Berlin and went to Paris in 1909. After returning to Berlin, he met the artist Ludwig Meidner with whom he felt a kinship. They shared an interest in creating an art with dramatic content that would inspire intense emotional responses. With other young painters, they created the Expressionist artists’ group Die Pathetiker in 1912. Steinhardt devoted himself to biblical subjects, such as Job, which he also painted in oil. His work was soon exhibited in the gallery of the avant-garde monthly Der Sturm and he became one of the most progressive artists in Berlin at the time. He created etchings and woodcuts, which became his principal means of expression for the rest of his life.

Jakob Steinhardt (b. Zerkow, Germany, now Poland, 1887–d. Israel, 1968), Old Couple at the Window, 1933, woodcut. U.136.

The activities of the avant-garde Expressionist artists’ group Die Pathetiker that Steinhardt and other artists had founded in 1912 were cut short when Steinhardt was drafted during World War I. He served in Lithuania where he found himself drawn to the deep religious faith of the Hasidic community. He was in awe of the intense spiritual atmosphere in the midst of poverty, the customs and the fervent dedication to prayer and study he found among the devout. Steinhardt himself suffered from starvation and illness as a soldier. He arrived home in a state of collapse after the War.

After the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, Steinhardt fled and settled in Jerusalem, which he had first visited in 1925. He continued to represent biblical and other Jewish subjects as well as the landscape of his new homeland for the rest of his life.

Friedrich (Bedřich) Feigl (b. Prague, Bohemia, now Czech Republic, 1884–d. London, 1965), Hear Israel, 1921, woodcut. U.239.

In 1921, Friedrich (Bedřich) Feigl published a print portfolio of scenes from the Jewish ghetto of Prague, where his mother’s family had lived for generations and where he had spent his childhood. That same year, an album published for the twelfth World Zionist Congress featured this woodcut evoking the Shema, the daily prayer recited by observant Jews, along with etchings by Hermann Struck, Jakob Steinhardt and eight other artists. Feigl also painted biblical motifs, including Samson and Delilah, Lot and his daughters, Isaac’s blessing and Rebecca at the well—stories that he believed were relevant to contemporary experience. Feigl visited Palestine in 1933 and spent most of his time in Jerusalem. Shortly after returning to Berlin, where the Nazis had come to power that same year, Feigl left for Prague, and in 1939 he escaped to London, where he wrote reviews and essays on art and culture and showed his work at the Ben Uri Gallery.

Hermann Struck (b. Berlin, Germany, 1876–d. Haifa, Palestine, now Israel, 1944), Untitled (Figure Walking), n.d., etching. Ralph and Leuba Baum Collection, B.2.

Hermann Struck was born into an Orthodox Jewish family in Berlin and studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Berlin from 1895 to 1900. He joined the Berlin Secession in 1904, a group that separated from the Academy and promoted modern German art. Struck joined the Zionist movement and first visited Palestine in 1903. Serving as an Officer of Jewish Affairs during World War I, he had his first encounters with Jewish life in Eastern Europe, particularly the traditions and practices of Hasidism.

After witnessing the hardships and poverty among the Eastern European Jews, he began to portray them in his art. In 1922, Struck immigrated to Israel, creating a hub of Jewish cultural life at his home in Haifa. He continued his work on Jewish themes, including etchings and lithographs, and remained active in the Orthodox Jewish community. He was also a leader of the Mizrachi Party and participated in several Zionist Congresses.

William Auerbach-Levy (b. Brest-Litovsk, Belorussia, Russian Empire, now Belarus, 1889–d. Ossining, NY, 1964), The Patriarch’s Prayer, 1914, etching. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Lewis, HHAR 5472.

William Auerbach-Levy immigrated to New York with his family when he was about five years old and settled on the Lower East Side. There he found his portrait subjects among the traditional immigrant Jewish population during the peak of mass migration from Eastern Europe. He attended the National Academy of Design from the age of eleven and in 1911, after graduating from college, traveled in Europe for two years and studied in Paris at the Académie Julian. Back in New York, Auerbach-Levy taught etching at the National Academy of Design until 1935 and was an instructor at the Educational Alliance Art School. He returned to France on a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1928.

Specializing in portraiture and figure studies, Auerbach-Levy made his living as a caricaturist and contributed drawings of celebrities and entertainers to the New York World, the New York Post, Esquire, Collier’s, The New Yorker and Vanity Fair.

Rahel Szalit-Marcus (b. Kovno, Russian Empire, now Kaunas, Lithuania, 1894–d. Auschwitz, 1942), The child is pushed out of the cart barefoot. . ., from Fischke the Lame, by Mendele Moykher-Sforim, 1922, lithograph. Gift of Sigmund R. Balka, 08.07.12.

Rahel Szalit-Marcus grew up in Lodz and studied art in Munich in 1911. She moved to Berlin in 1916 and became a member of the radical Novembergruppe, an association of artists that emerged in 1918 during the revolutionary period following the end of World War I. In the 1920s, she was a successful illustrator of works by Sholem Aleichem, Charles Dickens and Fyodor Dostoyevsky, among others. When Hitler came to power in 1933, Szalit-Marcus fled to France, but was interned at Drancy and deported to Auschwitz where she was murdered. Most of the paintings and watercolors she left behind in her studio were destroyed, though many of her prints survived.

Szalit-Marcus’s grotesquely expressionist renderings depict the desperate conditions, including violence and poverty that afflict the working class characters in Fischke the Lame, a short novel by Mendele Moyker Sforim (1836–1917) that follows the misfortunes of an itinerant beggar, the eponymous Fischke.

Max Weber (b. Bialystok, Russian Empire, now Poland, 1881–d. Great Neck, NY, 1961), Draped Head, 1928, lithograph. Gift of Joanna V. Pomeranz, HHAR 6099.

Max Weber immigrated to the United States with his family at the age of ten and settled in Brooklyn. He attended the Pratt Institute and traveled to Paris in 1905 to study at the Académie Julian and briefly with Henri Matisse. He returned to New York in 1909 and has been credited with helping to introduce Cubism to America. Working in a semi-abstract, modernist style, around 1918 Weber began to incorporate religious themes related to his Orthodox Eastern European Jewish heritage into his compositions.

By the 1920s, Weber returned to a more representational style. Draped Head directly relates to an earlier painting now in the Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C. Like that work, the figure here is pictured in contemplation. It also has a solidity and monumentality found in Picasso’s work of the same period. Its evocation of solemn spirituality reflects the influence on Weber of Byzantine art and the sixteenth-century Spanish artist El Greco.

Arbit Blatas (b. Kovno, Russian Empire, now Kaunas, Lithuania, 1908–d. New York, 1999), Babi Yar, ca. 1969, lithograph. HHAR 3068.

While he was a child in Kovno, Arbit Blatas and his family were deported to Ukraine, but allowed to return in 1921. He studied in a Jewish gymnasium and went on to study drawing at the Kaunas Art School. From 1924 to 1926, Blatas studied at the Academy of Arts in Berlin, and then moved to Paris to continue his art studies.

Blatas fled Nazi-occupied France in 1941 and survived the War, though his mother perished in a concentration camp. He lived in New York and Venice, creating works that recalled events of the Holocaust, including a memorial in the Venice Ghetto. This print depicts the Babi Yar massacre, one of the largest and most brutal mass killings in which 33,000 Jews in Kiev, then in Soviet Ukraine, were murdered at a ravine over two days in September 1941. The print is directly related to an earlier painting of the subject dated 1944.

A. Fuchs (Place of birth and death and dates unknown), Untitled, 1961, lithograph. Gift of Jacob Reingold, HHAR 06.03.

Nothing is known about the maker of this work, which is signed A. Fuchs and dated 1961. It’s possible the print was created based on personal experience or memories of specific events during the Holocaust. The scene itself is sparse and emphasizes the isolation and vulnerability of the individuals depicted. Each person or small group carries few if any belongings and is seen from behind moving toward an unknown yet fateful destination. Each of the adult figures is slightly stooped, bearing the weight of not only physical but emotional burdens. At left is a fragment of barbed wire fencing and an abandoned suitcase, indicating that the group of deportees may have arrived at a concentration camp.

Albert Dov Sigal (b. Kolozsvár, Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 1912–d. New York, 1970), Detainees in Cyprus, from Cyprus Camp, 1948, etching. Gift of Rose Sigal Ibsen, HHAR 3377.

Albert Dov Sigal studied enameling, engraving and painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kolozsvár. In 1933, he moved to Bucharest. By 1939, it was difficult to find work and Sigal experienced persecution. Nevertheless, he began an underground art school. After his marriage in mid-1941, Sigal and his wife opened a jewelry business under a gentile name. During the Holocaust, they escaped deportation, though most of their extended family was murdered.

Sigal reestablished his career in Bucharest after the War and in 1946 exhibited at the National Museum. However, life under Communism was difficult and the family immigrated to Palestine on an illegal immigrant ship that was intercepted by the British in December 1947. Sigal based his prints on drawings he made in a camp in Cyprus during his internment. The British released the family in February 1948 and allowed them to enter Palestine. They eventually resettled in New York in 1959.

Anatoli Kaplan (b. Rogachev, Belorussia, Russian Empire, now Rohachow, Belarus, 1902–d. Leningrad, USSR, now Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1980), Verse 7: Came an Ox and Drank the Water, from The Little Goat, 1958–1961, lithograph. HHAR 1497.

Belorussian-born artist Anatoli Lvovich Kaplan studied at the Leningrad Academy of Arts and early in his career worked as a theater designer. In 1939, he became a member of the Artists Union and began to exhibit regularly, first learning lithography around this time and completing a series about Kasrilevke, the fictional village in the work of Sholem Aleichem. In 1957, he was commissioned to create illustrations for The Bewitched Tailor to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the author’s birth. His other portfolios include Song of Songs, Yiddish Folksongs and Tevia the Milkman.

The subject of The Little Goat is the “Had Gadya”—the folk song in Aramaic and Hebrew that is sung at the end of the Passover seder. The Little Goat portfolio features a table of contents, title page, frontispiece, dedication page and a page with the complete song poem in addition to the eight individual verses in both Russian and Yiddish.

Simon Karczmar (b. Warsaw, Poland, Russian Empire, now Poland, 1903–d. Safed, Israel, 1982), Simhas Torah, Dance of the Torah, from Shtetl, ca. 1960, lithograph. Gift of Randolph and Herta Chester, HHAR 1294.

Simon Karczmar attended the Warsaw School of Fine Art and beginning in 1929 continued his studies in Paris where he went on to make a living buying and sorting furs. In 1941, during the German occupation, Karczmar and his family fled to Nice. Despite their efforts to evade deportation, his wife was sent to a concentration camp and Karczmar joined the resistance.

After the War, Karczmar was reunited with his family and they emigrated, first to Israel and then to Canada in 1955. There Karczmar read works by Sholem Aleichem and was inspired to paint scenes that recalled the summers he spent as a child in his grandfather’s small Lithuanian Jewish village of Dziewieniszki. The works from Shtetl—a collection of images depicting scenes from everyday life in the village—were drawn in a naive manner that evokes the innocence of childhood. In 1962, Karczmar and his wife returned to Israel where he joined the artists’ colony at Safed.

Emanuel Schary (b. Haifa, Palestine, now Israel, 1924–d. Rock Hill, NY, 1994), A Letter Home, n.d., lithograph. Gift of Rita and Marvin Grant, HHAR 2943.

Emanuel Schary immigrated to the United States from what was then Palestine when he was 16. Since his father was an American citizen, when the country entered World War II, he was drafted into the Army and deployed to Europe. After the War, Schary studied at the Carnegie Institute of Technology School of Fine Arts in Pittsburgh and at the Art Students League and the Pratt Graphic Center in New York.

Schary worked as a commercial artist, including designing for Estée Lauder and Givenchy perfumes before devoting himself full time to art at the age of 61. His work is realist and detailed as in this print, which nostalgically depicts an older man wearing a traditional Eastern European cap holding a letter in an interior with a view of a traditional European Jewish village, or shtetl. The title suggests that the man has received “a letter home”—perhaps from a child who has emigrated to America.

Ilya Schor (b. Złoczów, Galicia, Austro-Hungarian Empire, now Zolochiv, Ukraine, 1904–d. New York, 1961), Jewish Wedding, 1950s, wood engraving with hand coloring. Gift of Estelle Reingold, HHAR 6354. © Mira Schor. Reproduced with Permission.

In 1920, Ilya Schor was apprenticed to an engraver and learned metalwork and engraving, which he utilized in his sculpture, prints, jewelry and Jewish ritual objects. In 1928, he began his studies in painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw where he met his wife, Resia, two years later. In 1937, Schor was awarded a grant to study in Paris and worked on a mural for the Polish Pavilion at the Paris World’s Fair that year. He also exhibited at the Salon d’Automne in Paris in 1938. During the German occupation, the couple fled France for the United States.

Schor’s work evokes the shtetl culture that was lost during the Holocaust in a style that is at once modern and naïve. It represents with authenticity the world from which he came and acknowledges his artistic heritage—his father was a Hasidic folk artist and sign painter in Galicia.

Tully Filmus (b. Ataki, Bessarabia, Russian Empire, now Otaci, Moldova, 1903–d. Fern Hill, MA, 1998), Chassidic Dance, 1964, lithograph. HHAR 176.

Tully Filmus came to the United States with his family at the age of ten and settled in Philadelphia. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and attended seminars at the Barnes Foundation. In 1927, he was awarded a fellowship to study in Paris and returned to the United States during the Depression, settling in New York, where he continued his studies at New York University and the Art Students League.

Filmus’s Jewish subjects, such as Chassidic Dance, honored the memory of traditional Eastern European Jewish life and documented contemporary Jews in the wake of the Holocaust. Filmus taught at the American Artists School in New York and Cooper Union, and exhibited regularly in the 1940s at the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Carnegie Institute and the Corcoran Gallery. His work was also shown at ACA Galleries in New York in 1971.

Joseph Margulies (b. Vienna, 1896–d. New York, 1984), A Chassid, 1966, etching. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Lewis, HHAR 5912.

Joseph Margulies came to the United States with his family at a young age. He studied at the Art Students League and the National Academy of Design in New York and at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Margulies worked as a painter, etcher and lithographer. He was a well-known portrait artist and was commissioned to execute portraits of presidents and other distinguished individuals. Representing a surviving remnant of traditional life decimated by the Holocaust, A Chassid uncompromisingly renders the deeply lined face of his impoverished sitter in a manner that suggests authenticity and spiritual richness.

Associated American Artists, a New York-based gallery that promoted American artists and sought to make art affordable to the middle class, published Margulies’s etching. Many of its prints were sold through mail-order catalogues for five dollars each. AAA published more than 2600 print editions between 1934 and 1990, including 40 by Margulies.